Ford Focus>> Engines>> Basic elements of a design of the engine



In the block of cylinders details of shatunno-piston group and greasing system are located a cranked shaft. Outside of the block auxiliary units, such as the generator, the pump of the hydraulic booster of a steering, a starter and ignition system take place. All blocks of the Zetec series are cast from an aluminum alloy, blocks from gray cast iron is applied on Endura turbodiesel.
The head of cylinders in modern engines is made of easy alloys. Inlet and final collectors join a head. In the head channels of system of cooling and greasing, the saddles of valves directing plugs of valves, basic necks of a camshaft are located. Between a head and the block laying of a head of the block is put.
In cylinders the pistons making back and forth motions from the top dead point (VMT) to bottom (NMT) are located. Diameters of cylinders and pistons steal up one dimensional group. At operation of the engine cylinders are cooled with liquid.
Pistons move in cylinders and transfer pressure of the gases formed as a result of combustion of gas mixture, through a rod to a cranked shaft. Pistons are made of especially easy alloyed and heat resisting alloy. The piston finger connects the piston to a rod. The top piston rings (kompressionny) condense the combustion chamber. The bottom rings (maslosjemny) remove surpluses of oil from walls of the cylinder and take away it in the oil pallet.

Designation of engines and applicability on standards of toxicity
Engine designation
Engine
Date of issue
Applicability
FXDA
1,4 l
till May - June, 2000.
Europe
(except Germany)
FXDC
1,4 l
till May - June, 2000.
Germany
FYDA
1,6 l
till May - June, 2000.
Europe
(except Germany)
FYDC
1,6 l
till May - June, 2000.
Germany
FYDG
1,6 l
till May - June, 2000.
corresponds
ECE-R1504
EYDA
1,8 l
since May - June, 1999.
Europe
EYDC
1,8 l
since May - June, 1999.
Germany
EDDA
2,0 l
since May - June, 1999.
Europe
EDDC
2,0 l
since May - June, 1999.
Germany

Specifications
Characteristic
Engine

1,4 l
Zetec-SE
1,6 l
Zetec-SE
1,8 l
Zetec-E
2,0 l
Zetec-E
1,8 l
Endura
1,8 l
Endura-DI
Type
4-тактный, ryadny, petrol, DOHC
4-тактный, ryadny diesel, SOHC
Working volume of cylinders, cm 3
1,388
1,596
1,796
1,988
1,753
1,753
Diameter of the cylinder, mm
76
79
80,6
84,8
82,5
82,5
Piston stroke, mm
76,5
81,4
88
88
82
82
Extent of compression
11
11
10
10
19,4
19,4
Operating procedure of cylinders
1-3-4-2
Engine capacity at frequency of rotation of a cranked shaft, kW (h.p.)/of mines -1
55 (75)/5000
74 (100)/6000
85 (115)/5200
96 (130) 5500
55 (75) 4000
66 (90)
4000
The maximum moment of the engine at frequency of rotation of a cranked shaft, N · m/mines -1
123/3500
145/4000
160/4400
178/4500
175/1800
200/2000
Size of thermal gaps in valves (the engine cold):






inlet, mm
0,17-0,23
0,17-0,23
0,11-0,18
0,11-0,18

0,30-0,40
final, mm
0,27-0,33
0,31-0,37
0,31-0,37
0,27-0,34

0,45-0,55
Internal diameter of the cylinder, mm:






class 1
76,00-76.01
79,00-79,01
80,60-80,61
84,80-84,81
82,500-82,515
82,500-82,515
class 2
76,01-76,02
79,01-79.02
80,61-80,62
84,81-84,82
82,515-82,530
82,515-82,530
class 3
76,02-76,03
79,02-79,03
80,62-80,63
84,82-84,83


Diameter of the piston, mm:






class 1
75,96-75,97
78,975-79,005
80,57-80,58
84,77-84,78
82,410-82,425
82,410-82,425
class 2
75,97-75,98
78,985-79,015
80,58-80,59
84,78-84,79
82,425-82,440
82,425-82,440
class 3
75,98-75,99
78,995-79,025
80,59-80,60
84,79-84,80




The rod connects the piston to cranked shaft. Main parts of a rod: an opening for a piston finger, the case and a demountable head with a cover.

Fig. 42. The block of cylinders of engines of the Zetec-SE series consists of the aluminum alloy alloyed by silicon: 1 — the block of cylinders; 2 — loose leaves of radical bearings; 3 — a cranked shaft; 4 — a cover of radical bearings



The cranked shaft will transform piston back and forth motion to the rotary. Modern cranked shaft make a method of hot punching. The cranked shaft has 5 radical and 4 shatunny bearings (fig. 42) .
Valves carry out an admission of gas mixture and production of the fulfilled gases.

Fig. 43. Camshaft: 1 — a final camshaft; 2 — an inlet camshaft; 3 — the inlet valve; 4 — the inlet channel; 5 — the combustion chamber; 6 — the final channel; 7 — the final valve



The camshaft opens and closes valves during precisely certain time. On Endura engines one camshaft located in a head of the block (SOHC) is established. On Zetec engines — two camshafts also located in a block (DOHC) head (fig. 43) .
Admission — the 1st step. The piston makes a course from VMT to NMT, the inlet valve is open, gas mixture arrives in the cylinder.
Compression — the 2nd step. The piston makes a course from NMT to VMT and compresses gas mixture. Inlet and final valves are closed.
Working course — 3-step. Already before VMT the compressed working mix will ignite from a spark plug spark. The working mix burns down vzryvoobrazno, because of accruing pressure the piston moves to NMT. The rod transfers movement to a cranked shaft, forcing it to rotate.
Release — the 4th step. The inertial mass of a flywheel forces the piston to move again to VMT. The final valve is already open, and the burned-down (exhaust) gases can leave in an exhaust system.
The diesel engine works on the same process. At a step "admission" clean air arrives in the cylinder. It soaks up clean air. At the end of a compression step when fuel is injected into the chamber of combustion, there is a spontaneous ignition of gas mixture without additional ignition (spark). Extent of compression at a diesel engine is much higher, than at the petrol engine.
The working volume of the cylinder ( the Fig. 44 ) is measured by piston movement from VMT to NMT.
The chamber of combustion does not influence size of working volume. Volume of the chamber of combustion together with working volume form total amount of the cylinder.

Fig. 44. Working volume of the cylinder: 1 — the top wall of the chamber of combustion; 2 — volume of the chamber of combustion; 3 — VMT; 4 — NMT; 5 — working volume of the cylinder



Extent of compression — the relation of full volume of the cylinder to volume of the chamber of combustion. At Endura turbodiesel extent of compression makes 19,4:1. The Zetec-SE engine has extent of compression 11:1 and the series E engine — extent of compression 10:1 (fig. 44) .